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Onion cell labeled diagram

onion cell labeled diagram com 7. e. Onion, (Allium cepa), herbaceous biennial plant in the amaryllis family (Amaryllidaceae), grown for its edible bulb. The diagram below shows six cells in various phases of the cell cycle. The most important structures of plant and animal cells are shown in the diagrams below, which provide a clear illustration of how much these cells have in common. 20. The phases are listed below, along with the major events that occur during each phase. 11. RESULTS Microscope Observations *Within the circles below, draw what you see. (4 marks) e The onion epidermal cells are not green in colour because they lack. A onion diagram is quite similar to a normal plant cell except it doesn't have any chloroplasts as it grows under soil, so it has no light. Save and submit the assignment. . Observe an onion cell under the microscope. Although slicing the onion root captures many cells in different phases of the cell cycle, keep in mind that the cell cycle is a continuous process. Onion Cell Mitosis Onion Cell Mitosis Lab Instructions Background: In a growing plant root, the cells at the tip of the root are constantly dividing to allow the root to grow. Results Make an annotated diagram of a cell in dH2O and a cell in salt solution. Then draw cells in cytokinesis and interphase as well. Describe one way plants growing near these roads could be harmed by the salt. For an organism to grow, mature and maintain tissue, new cells must be made. How does a Euglena act like a plant and animal at the same time? 2. All organisms are made of cells. To make it easier to cell the cells and the nucleus, a drop of iodine was placed on the slide. Desctibe what happens to the water content of the red onion cells when they are placed in a salt solufion. Drawings to Be Submitted. 1. Make your work easier by using a label. Label: Cell Memebrane. Worksheet for very low ability pupils for them to draw what they can see and calculate the magnification. आवश्यक सामग्री: एक प्याज, चाकू या ब्लेड, वॉच-ग्लास, पानी, चिमटी, ड्रॉपर, आयोडीन का घोल, स्लाइड एवं ADVERTISEMENTS: The below mentioned article provides a study note on the plasmolysis in plant cell. 18. Label all structures observed. New cells arise by the division of pre-existing cells. Onion Epidermal Cell Labeled. Draw labeled diagrams showing the 5 stages of mitosis (prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase) for a diploid cell where 2N=6. Label the cells as they appear under high power. (At minimum you should observe the nucleus, cell wall, and cytoplasm. Study the changes which occur in a cell as it undergoes the cell cycle. The most commonly used root tips in labs to study mitosis are onion, wheat, lentil, barley and alfalfa. (Ignore web site which says 24 hours!) The cells pictured below are located in the apical meristem of the onion root. - Put a drop of water and then a drop of glycerin on it. Draw a diagram to indicate the relative proportions of salt and water within the onion cells and outside the onion cells when they were placed in the distilled water solution. Minecraft Circle Diagram. Although slicing the onion root captures many cells in different phases of the cell cycle, keep in mind that the cell cycle is a continuous process. Draw two adjacent onion cells. In order to observe the endoplasmic reticulum of onion epidermal cells, make a stock solution of DiOC 6 (3) by dissolving 1 mg of DiOC 6 (3) in ethanol, and dilute the stock solution with Chapter 2 Short questions [1A02209] The diagram shows a plant cell. Onion epidermis, at X, iodine stain. Locate the region of active cell division, known as the root apical meristem, which is about 1 mm behind the actual tip of the root. Diagram the cells in your lab notebook. contractile vacuole - a cavity within the amoeba that excretes excess water and waste; the waste is brought to the cell membrane and is then eliminated from the amoeba. See charts for diagrams of some of the algae and cyanobacteria commonly found in pond water. WheWhen viewing a sample of onion cells using a microscope, a drop of iodine solution is placed on the onion cells. onion layer. Use the diagram to answer questions 1-7. Observe, draw and write what happens: 1. described the appearance of cork under the microscope. 4. A wet-mount slide of red onion cells is studied using a compound light microscope. Labeled diagrams of typical animal and plant cells with editable layers. Plant Cell Symbols. Labeled diagram of a Locate cells in prepared onion root slides that are in the process of interphase and dividing mitosis. Each cell with wall, membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus and large vacuole. The cells you'll be looking at in this activity were photographed with a light microsope and then digitized so you can see them on the computer. Onion, (Allium cepa), herbaceous biennial plant in the amaryllis family (Amaryllidaceae), grown for its edible bulb. Label: cell wall, cell membrane & cytoplasm. The cell cycle is the sequence of events that includes cell growth (interphase), and division (mitosis and cytokinesis). This makes a root tip an excellent tissue to study the A wet-mount slide of red onion cells is studied using a compound light microscope. Hannah had two small cups and filled and labeled one with HCI and one with Carnoy. to show which way water moves. The contractile vacuole collects water that enters the cell from osmosis. Make a wet mount of the onion tissue you just rinsed using 2 or 3 drops of DISTILLED WATER on the onion tissue then install cover slip. just beneath it. Flag · Onion · labeled Onion Cell Epidermis Molecular Biology, Science, Onions, Bulb, Flag, Onion. Thes e ca n be s ta ined to bring s ome cell s tru ctu res - inclu d ing the nu cleu s a nd cell membra ne/wa ll - into contra s t, s o tha t they ca n be obs erved u s ing a lig ht micros cope. Carefully, place the cover slip on top of the stained onion skin. The onion is likely native to southwestern Asia but is now grown throughout the world, chiefly in the temperate zones. X. Focus the slide under the low power objective and move the slide to find good examples of these cells. Draw two adjacent onion cells. Sketch the onion peel cell as seen under the microscope. The onion cell diagram shows that in the middle of. 5. Can you see more than one nucleus inside of the cell? 1 0. The figure given below, shows the epidermal cells of an onion bulb. Each group should be able create a complete cell. Find and submit a hard copy of \(\text{5}\) micrographs showing different cell organelles. Obtain a prepared slide of onion cells or prepare one yourself. Materials: Microscope Onion Root Tip Hypothesis-If lectin protein is put in the onion root tip cell, it will have more cells in the mitosis phase. (Hint: The more cells you found in a particular phase is a sign that that phase takes longer –at any given moment you are more likely to spot a cell in a long slow phase than a short fast one. (See below for example) Label the circles PROKARYOTE, PLANT, ANIMAL. Observe the cells for several minutes. Identify and label the cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, and nucleolus, if visible. Compare your drawing with the figure-1 to find out labeled 6. Diagram the direction of water flow. The activity does not work in Netscape. 1 : (b) Staining and mounting the onion peel Fig. Cell Wall. Protista 1. Normal onion cells are clear (or white) but the ones pictured are orange due to the iodine stain. Draw one healthy Elodea cell and label the CELL WALL, CYTOPLASM, VACUOLE, CHLOROPLASTS, and NUCLEUS. Find diagrams of a plant and an animal cell in the Science tab. A recap of what differences there are between plant and animal cells and then a recap of how to use microscopes correctly. Onion Cell Drawing (low power) 2. 2 : Epidermal cells of an onion peel Sl. Place the onion tissue on a glass slide. Carefully, place the cover slip on top of the stained onion skin. 4. Save and submit the assignment. Last updated: 31 July 2005 Comments: Dr. Watch the cells for approximately 2-3 minutes or longer as you again survey the ENTIRE onion tissue on LOW POWER. 2 Answers. Happy Labeling! Cells and Onion Cells Background Over 300 years ago, Robert Hooke. Key concepts include a) cell structure During interphase, the cell cycle's first Learn more Mitosis Assignment - Answer Key. View under the microscope and sketch the cells at each magnification. As observed in the labeled animal cell diagram, the cell membrane forms the confining factor of the cell, that is it envelopes the cell constituents together and gives the cell its shape, form, and existence. MATERIALS REQUIRED Onion, plain slides, coverslip, watch glass, needles, forceps, brush, blade, safranin, blotting paper, glycerine and compound microscope. The following diagram showing cells of onion peel, label the cell wall, nucleus and 16. You can add your own touch by including a personal event info or adding other icons or illustrations to the design. Observing onion cells under the microscope. This membrane holds everything in the cells and is comprised of a "phospholipid bilayer," a structure made of oily molecules, held together by the interaction of these molecules with water. See how a generalized structure of an animal cell and plant cell look with labeled diagrams 3. Determining time spent in different phases of the cell cycle The life cycle of the cell is typically divided into 5 major phases. 120000 µm /800120000 µm=150. The following diagram showing human cheek cells, label the parts as observed by you. LABEL YOUR DIAGRAM B above. 9. PDF Getting the onion cell diagram labeled books now is not nice of hard way. This Elodea leaf cell exemplifies a typical plant cell. This differs from the cells in our data table because our cells were in the interphase stage most of its time. No cell wall present in cheek cell, dense cytoplasm, nucleus located in the center, no plastids, the cell membrane is here. Elodea Onion III. The diagram should be neat, colorful, accurate, and appropriately titled. The nucleus is present at the periphery of the cytoplasm. The skin (or epidermis) between the dormant leaves of an onion are a single cell thick, and serve as a classic representation of the internal structure of plant cells. Anaphase is a procedure that lasts just a couple of minutes. labeled Onion Cell Epidermis. 3. Plant Cell Lab - Onion Cells: To view a plant cell, remove a very thin transparent piece of tissue from an onion. Nucleus . 07. Elodea. sabbath school program planner 2 labeled onion cell diagram mitosis. View under the microscope and sketch the cells at each magnification. Cork, which does not contain living tissue. 20. Observe the onion under the low and high power of your microscope. View your onion skin under high power (400X). (4 marks) nucleus, cell wall, chloroplast, vacuole, chromosome b Green plants make glucose by photosynthesis. 3. Diagram the cells in your lab notebook. in your science journals. Plant Cell Label the plant cell diagram using the glossary of plant cell terms. These neat drawings MUST be completed using a pencil. The ribosomes are labeled for you. First, observe the outside of the organism. - Draw and label the diagram, what you have observed under the microscope. Defined by a membrane called the tonoplast, the central vacuole functions as a holding tank for water and other molecules used by the cell. In one particular cell’s nucleus, the chromatin has condensed so much that it can be seen using a light microscope. Record the magnification. ce // CLU 8. Draw a diagram of a cheek cell The onion's large cells can be seen easily under a microscope and also used to teach the fundamentals of cell biology. If you Mitosis in Onion Root Tip Cells Biology Projects, Biology Science Fair Project Ideas, Biology Topics for CBSE School,ICSE Biology Experiments for Kids and also for Middle school, Elementary School for class 5th Grade,6th, 7th, 8th, 9th 10th, 11th, 12th Grade and High School , MSC and College Students. an image of a cell organelle (based on the labeled cell from the lesson) to its name o Cell Parts Kahoot [“You Do” or “We Do”] – students play a game reviewing the cell parts o Cell Diagram Variation Worksheet [“You Do” or “We Do”] – students identify cell organelles using a variety of cell diagrams Cell division occurs rapidly in growing root tips of sprouting seeds or bulbs. Magnification of onion cell =length of diagram/size of cell. Hypothesis: Look at the diagram of the cell cycle in your notes packet on Cell Division. The clear epidermal cells consist of a single layer and does not contain chloroplasts, because the onion fruiting body (bulb) is used for storing energy, not photosynthesis. DNA extraction requires 1) breaking open cells and releasing their contents, 2) separating DNA from the other cell contents (mostly proteins and carbohydrates), and 3) precipitating the DNA in order to further purify it and so it can be seen. nucleus,cytoplasm and cell wall ect look at a labeled diagram of an onion cell. Draw a labeled diagram of a cell in interphase and in each of the stages of mitosis (prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase) . Do onion cells (plants) have a definite shape? Explain why or why not. 13. Recolor the Cells for Better Visual Effects Click here👆to get an answer to your question ️ cytoplasm. The onion root tip cells’ slide is now prepared and ready to be examined for different stages of mitosis Observe and study mitosis by placing the slide under the compound microscope. ) 3. Each section of the chart should be labeled! You may draw lines pointing to different sections if the space provided is too small. nursing diagnosis for post term pregnancy. ADVERTISEMENTS: Read this article in Hindi to learn about the study of plant cell in an onion peel, explained with the help of suitable diagrams. 2. Source(s): https://shrinke. Source: diagramblog. Continue using the Onion (Allium) root tip longitudinal section (l. To view a plant cell, remove a very thin transparent piece of tissue from an onion. Therefore, diagram is150 times magnified than the actual cell. A B . To make it easier to cell the cells and the nucleus, a drop of iodine was placed on the slide. An onion root tip is a rapidly growing part of the onion and thus many cells will be in different stages of mitosis. Ask the students if they can remember a cell part and what function it does in the cell. Onion Cell Mitosis Worksheet Answers | Lobo Black #31055 #31056. Describe the proper way to add a saltwater solution to the cells without removing the one of the easiest labs in cell biology is observing onion cells under a microscope. Draw a diagram of the onion cells and label the parts you see. Cell is the structural and functional unit of life. Most of the reactions of aerobic cellular respiration occur within the organelle known as the (1) lysosome (3) mitochondrion (2) nucleus (4) vacuole 14. In the diagram of a cell below, the structure labeled X enables the cell to (1) release energy (2) store waste products (3) control nuclear division (4) manufacture proteins 13. 1. Be sure to explain WHY you made this prediction. Valerie Dean O'Loughlin, Also present in the onion cell, is a well-developed . Each of the words listed below must be correctly placed in the Venn Diagram. 2. plant and animal cell venn diagram, blank animal cell diagram and plant and animal cell diagram worksheet are some main things we will show you based on the gallery title. 4- 6 A wet-mount slide of red onion cells is studied using a compound light microscope. . Start studying Onion root tips (mitosis). Diagram A is typical of what the student observed after adding salt water. RED ONION . Diagram is labeled neatly without overlaps. Be sure to include the power of magnification and your field of view. No. 15. explain the importance of biological stains for microscope observations. Each plant cell has a cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, and a large vacuole. Both plant and animal cells, including human epithelial, and onion epidermal cells have a structure called a cell membrane or plasma membrane. 7. When unstained cells are viewed under a microscope, the light passes directly through the cells’ various structures revealing little to no detail. Phases of plant cells division: 1) Interphase is considered the first and last stage of plant cell division. An onion is a multicellular (consisting of many cells) plant organism. Onion Root Tip Diagram 4. Red onion cell . Purpose: To see if each phase of mitosis happens for an equal amount of time in onion root tip cells. Select one cell structure labeled in the diagram and write its number in the space below. 20. , NUCLEOLUS), label them also. An onion cell has a rectangular shape and its size can range in length from 0. The onion is likely native to southwestern Asia but is now grown throughout the world, chiefly in the temperate zones. Name the structure in the cell above, that makes the cell green. 2 -cuboidal epithelium. As observed in the labeled animal cell diagram, the cell membrane forms the confining factor of the cell, that is it envelopes the cell constituents together and gives the cell its shape, form, and existence. The best explanation for why the onion cells do not burst, while red blood cells often do, is that 34. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Like other plant cells, the cell of LABEL YOUR DIAGRAM B above to indicate relative proportions of salt and water inside the onion cells and outside the onion cells when they were placed in the saline (salt) solution - use arrows to show which way water moves. If you have observed any other parts of a cell (e. Why is it essential for a Euglena to move? 3. 2: Cell-wall: No cell wall present. Label interphase and the subsequent phases of mi is. Initial State Final State Part 2—Diffusion of Water Across a Membrane (Osmosis) 6. Answers: Pumpkin Life Cycle Printout Follow the life cycle of the pumpkin from seed to flower to mature pumpkin. Label structures. The onion skin has cells that look like the drawing below. The cheek epithelium cell is the only one that has centrioles, the barrel-shaped organelle that is responsible for helping organize chromosomes during cell division. and a . Find the illustration of the animal cell. Count and record in Table 16-1 the number of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. She used Forceps to transfer an onion root tip into the HCI An onion diagram is a kind of chart that shows the dependencies among parts of an organization or process. doc Created Date: 1/6/2016 1:33:09 PM Learn the structure of animal cell and plant cell under light microscope. Make observations under medium or high power and sketch one cell. Nucleus: Bound by a double-layer nuclear membrane, the nucleus contains the genetic material (the genome) of the cell. Total the number of cells on the onion root sample diagram and ensure that this equals the number of cells you The photomicrograph below depicts onion root tip cell chromosomes in metaphase, ready for separation. Indicate the contents and color of the beaker and cell 9. Color the text boxes to group them into organelles found in only animal cells, organelles found in only plant cells, and organelles found in both cell types. Obtain a prepared slide of onion cells or prepare one yourself. Worksheet for very low ability pupils for them to draw what they can see and calculate the magnification. View under the microscope and sketch the cells at each magnification. Diagram appropriately omits extraneous details. Slowly move the slide and search for cells in each phase of mitosis; When you have found one, make a detailed observational drawing of that cell. Just as in other cells we have studied, the nucleus is the control center of the cell; it contains the genetic information (DNA). The goals for this lesson are to: Make a wet mount slide. Nerve cells, bone cells and liver cells, for example, all develop in ways that enable them to better perform their specific duties. Onion cells are among the most common choices for cell studies in early biology classes. On the diagram below, label the location of each of the cell structures listed. Observe the onion cell under both low and high power. Before exploring the details of cell structure, let's understand the differences in the structure of an onion cell and a human cheek cell. According to our root tip data table, the onion root tip spends most of its cell cycle time in interphase and prophase, but mostly in interphase. On the diagram below, label the location of each of the cell structures listed. In the diagram of a cell below, the structure labeled X enables the cell to 19. All cells must replicate their DNA when dividing. 3 Mitosis Vs Meiosis And Diagram Blank Of Plant Cell Make a properly labeled drawing of the cells' appearance in the space provided. This Elodea leaf cell exemplifies a typical plant cell. This makes a root tip an excellent tissue to study the stages of cell division. Part A - Onion Cells. Figure 2 shows a typical plant cell structure. g. 10. Using arrows and Textables, label each part of the cell and describe its function. In this lab, you will make observations of red onion and . njit phys lab manual. Label all important structures (nucleus, chromosome, cell plate). Figure 3 shows onion epidermis stained with Iodine stain at 400x magnification. Now, rinse off the salt water and put just water back on the onion skin. All cells are produced by division of pre-existing cells. one of the easiest labs in cell biology is observing onion cells under a microscope. Photosynthesis creates fuel for the plant. fire officer exam reviewer free. आवश्यक सामग्री: एक प्याज, चाकू या ब्लेड, वॉच-ग्लास, पानी, चिमटी, ड्रॉपर, आयोडीन का घोल, स्लाइड एवं Label the cell wall, cell membrane, and cytoplasm. Focus as desired to obtain a distinct and clear image. eukaryotic cell stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images Cells in onion peel - Take a piece of an onion peel. Onion Cell Diagram Labeled [FREE] Onion Cell Diagram Labeled. 2) Gametes have a haploid number of chromosomes. Two images are available: a labeled diagram and a micrograph of the organelle. ? So the onion cells do not fall of the slide. At least some kinds of onion cells have chloroplasts, which is where photosynthesis takes place. These cells will get stained first. cell membrane. Focus at 100x and re center so that you are focused on the more 'square' meristem cells. 2. When observing the onion root tip cells for the stage of prophase, the cells took on a brick-like structure and within the cells, small dots (the nuclei) can be seen. Onion Cell Division Whitefish Cell Division. an English scientist. Some roads are salted heavily in winter. Today you will be looking at 25 onion root cells. user manual va. A drawing of one of the cells as seen under high power is shown below. Today’s objective: Observing Onion Cells under a Microscope. Label the cell wall, nucleus, and cytoplasm as they appear under high power. - Observe it under the microscope. It describes the series of events seen when the cell splits into two. Onion -leaves in onion bulb. Label: Cell Wall. The diagrams below show the stages of cell division in animal cells. The cells have a distinct cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm and vacuole present Using tweezers, place the onion skin onto the drop of water on the slide. 3. Adapted from my cheek cell powerpoint. Answers Iodine is often used to stain onion cells before microscopic examination to enhance the visibility of the cells. 25 to 0. saline (salt) solution - use . Draw a diagram of one cheek cell and label its parts. Make a drawing of the onion cell under HIGH power, labeling all of its parts as you observe them. Cytoplasm Cheek Cell. Answer the following questions: 1. Explain Human Cheek Cell Diagram Labeled ~ DIAGRAM. Identify and draw a cell in each of the four stages of mitosis in the onion slide. Now, drop a small amount of iodine onto the onion skin. Purpose: To study the structure of the onion epidermal cell, with particular emphasis on the nucleus and nucleoli. Diagram is accurately drawn and labeled. (*Hint — focus on cells located near the edge of the coverslip where you added the stain. €€€€€€€€€The photograph shows some cells in the root of an onion plant. Identify and label the cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, and nucleolus, if visible. Name three structures or organelles found in this plant cell that do not occur in animal cells (refer to the animal cell diagram). This sets the stage for chromosome separation in the next stage of mitosis The diagram below shows six cells in various phases of the cell cycle. The cell membrane encloses cytoplasm, cell organelles, and a nucleus. In many plant cells, the protoplasm may shrink completely away from the cell wall and collect as a spherical mass in the centre or in one corner of the cell (Fig. Remind the class that each cell part has an important function. Saved by Whitney Palka. Label the cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, and any other organelles that are visible. The diagram below represents a typical cell with three cell structures labeled 1, 2, and 3. Focus under 100x and diagram. 1)A 2)B 3)E 4)F Cell II most likely represents a plant cell due to the presence of 1)A and B 2)B and C 3)A and C 4)B and D The onion cell_lab 1. The numerous green chloroplasts allow the cell to . A Bit More Terminology Using the flower diagram on the previous slides, identify all the floral parts. blogspot. During telophase the spindle is disassembled and the nuclear envelope reforms around the divided sets of chromosomes. Estimate cell size (if you have previously calibrated your microscope). 5. com. Labeled diagram of a plant palisade cell where photosynthesis takes place. Draw four or five cells as seen. Focus under 400x and diagram. You should see changes within many of the cells initially near the perimeter of the onion tissue. Photo Gallery Note that each slide contains several round sections of the embryo, each section with many cells. 2. Cell division mitosis worksheet answers. root. The central vacuole takes up most of the volume of the cell. The iodine will bind to the starch in the cell wall and nucleus of the onion cells, staining them, and making them easier to see. You must have a reason! CELL CYCLE AND MITOSIS Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Division in the Eukarya. Name three structures found in plant cells AND in animal cells. 1. Select two reasons why this is so. with three circles. Estimate the number of lengths of the cell across the field of view to determine the size of the onion cell Print a Cell Division Diagram - Click on this link and then use the browser print command to produce a diagram to use with the cell division tutorials. The cells that were in mitosis and interphase were recorded in a data chart. ) Observation: The following labeled drawings should be completed on your own paper. A drawing of one of the cells as seen under high power is shown below. Rectangular-with eccentric nucleus. During the mitosis phase what divides the flashlight and the chromosomes move towards their respective poles. Staining the onion cells. 1. The following labeled drawings must be completed. D A F 4 E Are the cells depicted plant or animal cells? Draw a diagram of one cheek cell and label its parts. Diagram includes titles and magnification. Can you see a lightly-stained, granular area within the cells? This area is called the cytoplasm. Direct them to observe a total of 200 cells, using either prepared or freshly made slides, and record which phase each cell is in. a. Label the parts of the cell – complex drawing showing plant and animal cells, and protein synthesis Cell Labeling – simple cell drawing and complex cells diagrams are compared Mitosis in Onion Root Tips. 4 millimeters. 3 Position Switch Wiring Diagram. Begin studying mitosis in the root cell of onions. Plano Concave Lens Ray Diagram. mitosis worksheet answers, cell cycle and mitosis worksheet answers and onion root tip mitosis lab answer key are three main things we want to present to you based on the gallery title. Diagram is accurately drawn and labeled. Cell Wall Cell Membrane Molecular Biology Pretty Wallpapers Diagram Science Onions Teacher School. Standing Rigging Diagram. cell cell 11. Focus under medium power and diagram. 7. Parts of the cell are noted. Focus the slide under the low power objective (40x) and move the slide to find good examples of these cells. a Label the parts A, B, C and D using words from the box. Nucleus. What appears to be the cell membrane is actually a part called the pellicle. Place it on your slide with a drop of water and add a cover slip as shown in step 2 above using cork. Observe the cells for several minutes. Diagram appropriately omits extraneous details. 4. c. prepare a wet moun t of onion cells and a human cheek cells. The line MUST TOUCH the object labeled. The Onion Cell: Lab MATERIALS Whole white onion **soaked in water overnight* Microscopes (2-3 students per scope) Microscope slides Water bottle Cover slips Eyedropper/ pipette Iodine Tweezers Worksheet PROCEDURE Preparing the wet mount slide of onion skin 1. ! Using tweezers, place the onion skin onto the drop of water on the slide. The cell of an onion peel consists of a cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus and a large vacuole. 665). 33. Parts of the cell are noted. Onion cells. As in all plant cells, the cell of an onion peel consists of a cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus and a large vacuole. The iodine will bind to the starch in the cell wall and nucleus of the onion cells, staining them, and making them easier to see. Onion Cell Drawing (high power) 3. Label the species of Protist in your lab notebook. Size of onion cell-1600/2=800 µm. 2. Plant Cell Symbols. Add enough to make the water an ember color. Describe what happens to the water content of the red onion cells when they are placed in a salt soluüon. Directions: Make a Venn Diagram . (At a minimum you should observe: nucleus, cell wall, and cytoplasm. comes from the outer bark of the cork oak tree. *groups--compare the 4 diagrams and determine which one is the best 3) Make a wet mount of an onion cell and draw a formal diagram. Identify the stage of each plant cell in the cell cycle diagram below with either an I for interphase, P for prophase, M for metaphase, A for anaphase, or T for telophase. within the onion cells and outside the onion cells when they were placed in the saline (salt) solution. mazda fnr5 valve body. Onion Root Tip 40X. Answer the following questions: 1. Observe the onion cells under low power. Also the vacuole is quite large and pushes all the To prepare stained temporary mount of onion peel cells and to record observations and draw labelled diagrams. Recolor the Cells for Better Visual Effects Cell Research & Design – research cells on the web, use computer to create your own cell Cell Rap – song or poem to describe the parts of the cell. However, they are generally rectangular in shape, with a distinct cell wall. Mitosis is the procedure of cell division that is nuclear. LABEL all identifiable organelles by printing horizontally. When this contraction […] Labeled Diagrams from Cells. and see the cell walls clearly. Focus at 400x. Materials: The onion epidermis cell is the only cell that has a cell wall. Draw a labelled diagram of the cells as seen under microscope. During DNA replication, the two strands of the DNA double helix separate, and for each original strand a new complementary strand is produced, yielding two identical DNA molecules. Furthermore, the onion cells are brick-like in shape while the human cheek cells are rounded. Count all cells in the field of view and use Figure 16-1 as a guide. Because each cell divides independently of the others, a root tip contains cells at different stages of the cell cycle. state characteristics of living things. 18. The apical meristem is an area of a plant where cell division takes place at a rapid rate. to represent solute and to represent solvent 12. before treatment . Like all cells, there is also a plasma membrane surrounding the cell contents, but it clings closely to the cell wall and is hard to see with a light microscope. In a cell, a variety of structures perform speci c functions and interact to maintain homeostasis. The goals for this lesson are to: Make a wet mount slide. ) Data: Onion Cell Drawing (any power but preferably high power) PART TWO: Cheek cell wet mount When an onion cell is stained with iodine, which organelle becomes more visible under the compound light microscope? nucleus To locate a specimen on a prepared slide with a compound microscope, Why must a student should begin with the low-power objective rather than the high-power objective? Students can draw a labelled diagram. ) b. 6. Draw a detailed diagram of the cork and label the cell walls. Visit . The Biology Project > Cell Biology > Intro to Onion Root Tips Activity > Activity Online Onion Root Tips. ) Data: Onion Cell Drawing (any power but preferably high power) PART TWO: Cheek cell wet mount explain how the cell is the basic unit for all living things. Venn Diagram: Types of Cells. Have students infer and then calculate the time a dividing cell spends in each phase of the cell cycle. In the space below, sketch how the cell would look after the saltwater solution is added to it. Observe an onion cell under the microscope. 19. Color enhances understanding and is not used decoratively (if colored pencils are used). The nucleus of an onion epidermal cell . Describe the changes that occurred in the red onion 15. In this lab, you will be looking at the cells in an onion root tip. View your onion skin under low power (100X). Part B - Onion Cells (STAIN WITH IODINE) Obtain a prepared slide of onion cells or prepare one yourself. new headway beginner 4th edition. Cell Research & Design – research cells on the web, use computer to create your own cell Cell Rap – song or poem to describe the parts of the cell. This phenomenon is called plasmolysis. 10. iodine molecules in the "Final State" diagram too. epithelial cells. Make a drawing of one onion cell, using a pencil, labeling all of its parts as you observe them. The Cell and Cell Division: Onion Root Tip. Each cell should have one part of the diagram colored a different color than the rest, matching the title box. It has a nucleus, and a stiff cell wall which gives the cell its box-like shape. Draw and label four cells, representing each phase of mitosis, and one cell in interphase. However, the cell membrane in plant cells is quite rigid, while, the cell membrane in animal cells is quite flexible. Based on your observations, draw and color a typical red onion cell mounted in water. There are regularly shaped cells lying side by side in a pavement-like arrangement. The clear epidermal cells exist in a single layer and do not contain chloroplasts, because the onion fruiting body (bulb) is used for storing energy, not photosynthesis. onion cells and then added some salt water to the slide. The diagram below represents what occurred when an onion cell and a red blood cell were placed in distilled water. reproductive cells Filament: Bears and supports the anthers. With Edraw pre-made callouts symbol library, it's just one click away. Take a prepared cheek slide from the slide box. Relevance. ii) Mention any two reasons for the population explosion in India. s. I thought it would be helpful to share how I help students to see an example of a plant cell. Onion Cell Drawing (high power) 3. in salt water . Also use an arrow to properly indicate the direction of osmosis. Use 3 different shapes to represent the different chromosomes in each set, and use 2 different colors to represent the 2 sets of chromosomes. She tallied the amounts of each as she counted. Onion epidermal cells, iodine stain, X. Place the onion tissue on a glass slide. Wide collections of all kinds of labels pictures online. In the lab, we cut an onion and removed a tiny portion of the inside where cells can be viewed. At this phase, chromosomes might not be visible in the nucleus, but the nucleolus is seen as a spot. Observe the onion cell under both low and high power. (At minimum you should observe the cell membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm. Label the Cells Diagram with Callout Symbols As teaching materials, you always need to label terms and add descriptions to the cells diagrams. Theory Plant cell to be studied in lab: Onion peel The cells are very clearly visible as compartments with […] Make a properly labeled drawing of the cells’ ? ppearance in the space provided. Add a drop of iodine stain to the tissue and cover with a cover slip. The images shown below were taken using a regular light microscope with an oil immersion lens at 1000X. Cell wall clearly seen. Label the cell walls. Color enhances understanding and is not used decoratively (if colored pencils are used). 18. In plants, cells have an outermost rigid cell wall beneath which is a cell membrane. Hannah began to count the cells that were undergoing mitosis and interphase. Observe, draw and write. Fig. 4. What phase is it? Which cell is in metaphase? C Which cell is in the first phase of M phase (mitosis)? In cell A, what structure is labeled X? List the diagrams in order from first to last in the cell cycle. Note the cells are not arranged in the order in which mitosis occurs and one of the phases of mitosis occurs twice. How to make a Cheek Cell slide. 15. Label the cell wall, cell membrane. Label the cell wall, cytoplasm, nucleus, nuclear membrane using proper form. ? To get a better view of the cells. 19. Label the parts such as the cell wall, cytoplasm, vacuole and nucleus. - 1136051 Animal Cells and Virus Cells Symbols. Microscope Diagram Labeled, Unlabeled and Blank. I thought it would be helpful to share how I help students to see an example of a plant cell. A drawing of one of the cells as seen under high power is shown below. The following diagram showing cells of onion peel, label the cell wall, nucleus and 16. Ocean Ecosystem Food Chain Diagram. Metaphase. 2. Theory. (At minimum you should observe the nucleus, cell wall, and cytoplasm. In a typical animal cell, mitosis can be divided into four principals stages: Onion epidermis with large cells under microscope Onion epidermis under light microscope. The ictures ar not necessaril in order. Each plant cell has a cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, and a large vacuole. Make a prediction as to what percentage of these cells will be in interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. Normal onion cells are clear (or white) but the ones pictured are orange due to the iodine stain. Title: Microsoft Word - ONION ROOT TIP and WHITEFISH BLASTULA Images. Complete diagram C to show how the contents of the red onion cells should appear if the cell were then rinsed with distilled water for several minutes. diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. Use the diagram to answer questions 1-7. 0], via Flickr (a)€€€€€ Cells X and Y have just been produced by cell division. Note the cells are not arranged in the order in which mitosis occurs and one of the phases of mitosis occurs twice. Animal Cells and Virus Cells Symbols. These neat drawings MUST be completed using a pencil. Make a drawing of one onion cell, using a pencil, labeling all of its parts as you observe them. Onion Cell Mitosis Background: In a growing plant root, the cells at the tip of the root are constantly dividing to allow the root to grow. Pie Chart Graph Paper Procedure 1. The numerous green chloroplasts allow the cell to make its own food (by photosynthesis). Add Starch Indicator Solution (containing iodine) to the water in the beaker. Red blood cells (and other animal cells) placed in a distilled water solution usually swell up and Onion Cell Mitosis Worksheet Key – Cytokinesis is a point of mitosis, but the cells need to differ from one another. Cheek cell drawing (any power but preferably high) Drawings, Conclusions and Questions: Onion Cell. Draw a diagram to indicate the . After precipitation, the DNA is visible as a white-colored, stringy mass. A recap of what differences there are between plant and animal cells and then a recap of how to use microscopes correctly. The chart displays items in concentric circles, where the items in each ring depend on the items in the smaller rings. Cell Division - Mitosis - in Whitefish Blastula Cells: The arrow (A) points to a cell nearing the end of telophase. Continuity of life depends on cell division. The cells you'll be looking at in this activity were photographed with a light microsope and then digitized so you can see them on the computer. Identify cells in interphase and in each of the four stages of mitosis in the onion root tips by comparing them with diagrams. Show the difference in concentration inside and outside of the cells in the diagrams below. Make a minimum of five observations. Draw and label your diagram. Distilled Water Regular Water NaCl Water 3. Of the four cells of onion seen in the following figure, what phases of the cell cycle are Learn more Labeled Onion Cell Diagram Mitosis - Diagram To keep the cells flat. ? To protect the onion. Draw a labelled diagram of an onion epidermal cell seen under the microscope. Onion cells under the microscope illustration of an plant cell. Since animal cell requires flexibility to move so they don't have a cell wall. Part A ­ Onion Cells. Now, drop a small amount of iodine onto the onion skin. This is the contractile vacuole. They may use their worksheets from Part 1 to help. Many cells, including those of onions and other vegetables, are often transparent. The main difference between onion cell and human cheek cell is that the onion cell is a plant cell with a cell wall made up of cellulose whereas the human cheek cell is an animal cell without a cell wall. In addition, it is the only cell that has a chloroplast, where photosynthesis can happen. Why would we use cells from an onion . 5. More Label Me Printouts cell membrane - the thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the amoeba; it allows some substances to pass into the cell, and blocks other substances. 7. When we talk about Animal and Plant Label Worksheet, scroll the page to see several similar images to complete your ideas. Draw a few cells of the stained onion skin as seen under both low and high power. Guess many people probably like this vertical downward timeline with corresponding labels on the right. Observe the prepared slide of a whitefish blastula under high power (400X). One complete cell cycle for an onion root cell takes 720 minutes (12 hrs). 3 -columnar epithelium. up in two groups depending on their cell part: “plant cell” and “animal cell”. Identify the different parts of the animal cell and type them into the title boxes. A wet-mount slide of red onion cells is studied using a compound light microscope. com. EXTA CREDIT All living organisms are composed of cells. Draw a labelled diagram of an onion epidermal cell seen under the microscope. An onion cell is a plant cell, and a cheek cell an animal cell. 3. Cheek Cell available, labeled photomicrographs of the phases of the cell cycle. Label the parts of the cell – complex drawing showing plant and animal cells, and protein synthesis Cell Labeling – simple cell drawing and complex cells diagrams are compared The cell is now preparing for the final stage in the cell cycle, cytokinesis. Part Two: Plant Cells: Onion Epidermal Cells. 2. Onion cells under a light microscope at 10 times magnification Diagram showing plant cell onion tissue. Red onion cell . b)Animal cells: e. 1. Cell is a tiny structure and functional unit of a living organism containing various parts known as organelles. Onion Cells - Scanning (40x) As a plant cell, the onion cell is different from the cell of an animal. Student Tutorial - Click on these links to learn about the eukaryotic cell cycle. Label the following stages of the cell cycle. g. Using your book and lecture notes , label the plasma membrane, nucleus (containing DNA), cytoplasm, central vacuole, mitochondria, cell wall, and chloroplast. Label the species of Bacteria in your lab notebook. Diagram includes titles and magnification. 1) The pituitary gland is also known as the master gland. cells before and after the addition of saltwater. To estimate the relative length of time that a cell spends in The photomicrograph below depicts onion root tip cell chromosomes in metaphase, ready for separation. Cytokinesis is technically a separate set of events to mitosis. Stained onion skin cells Stained onion skin cells Type of cells Description of the shape Location a)Plant cells: e. Onion Cells Lesson Plan for 7th 9th Grade Lesson Planet. Introduction. Today’s objective: Observing Onion Cells under a Microscope. 1 : (a) Method of removing an epidermal peel from onion leaf Fig. Illustration of the process by which somatic cells multiply and divide. Hase preparation for mitosis dna replication cybklneslts cell growth below are pictures of onion root tip cells undergoing mitosis. Label: Cell wall, Cell membrane, Nucleus, Cytoplasm (on high power only) Medium Power Medium Power Low Power Low Power 18. Cytoplasm See full list on microscopemaster. " d. 1. This is a very simple pretension to exactly acquire the folder by online. Thc dl¶used 4hr0uqh 4he membrane from -Inside 4he cell cell 40 balance 4he amoun4 0/ solu+e and inside and oukfde +he- cell ana ma;n4ain homeos4òsis. Place a piece of red onion skin on a slide, add a drop of water and cover with a cover slip. Onion root tips are extremely popular for viewing the different phases of mitosis because the chromosomes are large and and very dark when stained. Use . . 1. The nucleus is present at the periphery of the cytoplasm. Make sure to give each figure: • a number and title (ex: Figure 1: Onion Cell) • magnification (40x, 100x, or 400x) • label all visible cell parts Cells A & F show an early and a late stage ofthe same phase of the cell cycle. cell wall. Switch to higher power and try to identify the cell membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm. Metaphase. Describe the proper way to add a saltwater solution to the cells without removing the NCERT Class 9 Science Lab Manual – Slide of Onion Peel and Cheek Cells Aim To prepare stained temporary mounts of onion peel and human cheek cells and to record observations and draw their labelled diagrams. A diagram of onion root tip cells undergoing cell division. According to the cell theory of biology, all cells arise from pre-existing cells. This sets the stage for chromosome separation in the next stage of mitosis For example, each human cell possesses 46 chromosomes, while each cell of an onion possesses 8 chromosomes. what happens: Adapted from my cheek cell powerpoint. Onion Cells - Scanning (40x) Our aim is to prepare a temporary mount of onion root tip to study mitosis. ) Observation: The following labeled drawings should be completed on your own paper. (i) Draw a well labelled diagram of the epidermal cell as it would appear after immersion in a strong sugar solution. Materials: The following materials are required: onion, microscope, glass slide, cover slip, and iodine (Note: The clear epidermal cells exist in a single layer and do not contain chloroplasts, because the onion fruiting body (bulb) is used for storing energy, not photosynthesis. - Gently cover it with a cover -slip. Removethe slide from the stage and save itfor later. Flat cells having an irregular border with flattened nuclei. Observe the onion cells under low power. relative proportions of salt and water. Null Hypothesis: If treated with lectin, there will be no change in growth or reproduction within the cell cycles of the onion cells. Science&EnhancedScope&andSequence&–&LifeScience& Virginia’Department’of’Education’©’2012’’ ’ 2’ Student/Teacher Actions (what students and teachers should be doing to facilitate However, the cell membrane in plant cells is quite rigid, while, the cell membrane in animal cells is quite flexible. The daughter cells are identical to one another and to the original parent cell. Photo. The kinetochore and polar microtubules are clearly visible and radiate out the ends of the cell leaving the chromosomes in the middle of the complex. Examine the apical meristem region of the onion root tip. 9. Since no cell wall plastids are present so it's an animal cell. Feature Observation 1. You can not by yourself going for collection shop or library or borrowing from your links to gain access to them. Label the cell membrane, (cell wall), and cytoplasm. Mitosis onion cell cytokinesis the key worksheet is the mitosis point but the cells need to be different from each other. Place the slide on the stage of the microscope, set it to low power, adjust the focus so the onion slice is clear. evidence of evolution packet answers. tip in order to see the different parts of the cell cycle? Procedure: Click here👆to get an answer to your question ️ i) Draw a well - labelled diagram to show the metaphase stage of mitosis in an animal cell having four chromosomes. 2. Label the cells as they appear under ADVERTISEMENTS: Read this article in Hindi to learn about the study of plant cell in an onion peel, explained with the help of suitable diagrams. Then complete this table to the best of your ability: Zone/Region relative cell length (short, intermediate, long) frequency of mitotic cells (low, medium, high) Some of the cell walls are very thin in some plants. He named the tiny, box­ like structures he observed cells. Onion Cell Drawing (low power) 2. Diagrams of the cell are very well understood but they often give us the wrong impression about how complicated cells really are. ) 3. Beneath the drawing label the picture identifying the cells and give the magnification, such as "Cheek Cells - 40X" OR Onion Cells with Iodine-100X. 4. Moreover, the human cheek cells have a prominent nucleus as well. It is the stage in which the cell is growing in size and 3. You should also be able to see another large, clear circle (on the left). The diagram below represents a typical cell with three cell structures labeled 1, 2, and 3. By UAF Center for Distance Education [CC BY 2. 11. With Edraw pre-made callouts symbol library, it's just one click away. This cell was then transferred to a drop of sugar solution. The following diagram showing human cheek cells, label the parts as observed by you. Estimated number of times in which onion cell would fit under field of view =2. Viewing Plant Cells. 2. The epidermal cells of onions provide a protective layer against viruses and fungi that may harm the sensitive tissues. It is also filled with fluid, called nucleoplasm and may contain one or more nucleoli--regions where ribonucleic acid (RNA) and ribosomes, the protein making machinery of the cell, are synthesized. (At minimum you should observe the cell membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm. Assumed length of biological diagram12cm=120000 µm. In eukaryotes, this generally occurs by the process of mitotic cell division, which involves the separate but often coordinated processes of cytokinesis (division of the cytoplasm and organelles) and mitosis (division of the nucleus and associated DNA). Central vacuole : The central vacuole takes up most of the space within a plant cell. Write the function of the of the part of the animal cell below the illustration. Saved by Study. Mitosis is a process of cell division which results in the production of two daughter cells from a single parent cell. Base your answer to the following question on the diagrams below which represent two different cells. This assignment will help you understand the complexity of cells. 9. Answers: Sprouting Bean Plant Label the newly-sprouted dicot plant. It has a nucleus, and a stiff cell wall which gives the cell its box-like shape. In the lab, we cut an onion and removed a tiny portion of the inside where cells can be viewed. Draw a diagram to indicate the relative proportions of salt and water within the onion cells and outside the onion cells when they were placed in the saline (salt) solution. Pumpkin Plant Label the pumpkin vine diagram using the short glossary of terms. This!work!issupportedinpartbyagranttoLouisianaStateUniversityfromtheHowardHughesMedicalInstitutethrough! the!Precollege!and!Undergraduate!Science!Education!Program. 3. Identical in internal structure with basalt body. This probably means that it takes a long time for the onion root tip cells to grow, repair, copy DNA, and grow again. A to show how the contents of the red onion cells should appear before the salt water treatment. The nucleus is. A drawing of one of the cells as seen under high power is shown below. • Onion Let's try how to make onion cell Talking concerning Onion Cell Mitosis Worksheet Answers, we already collected various similar images to give you more ideas. 2001 f550 wiring diagram. These cells will get stained first. diagram onion cells and label the cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, and chloroplast. What structure surrounds the cell membrane (in plants) and gives the cell support. Because each cell divides independently of the others, a root tip contains cells at different stages of the cell cycle. Add a drop of water to the tissue and cover with a cover slip. Click here👆to get an answer to your question ️ cytoplasm. Identifying structures in the paramecium is rather simple! As you read the information, fill in the blanks on your worksheet and identify the structures on your diagram. Purple colored, large epidermal cells of an onion, Allium cepa, in a single layer. Base&on-your observaüons, draw and color a typical red onion cell mounted in disfilled Label the cell wall, cell membrane, and cytoplasm. Now, rinse off the salt water and put just water back on the onion skin. For one thing, it has a cell wall that surrounds the cell membrane, which an animal cell lacks. 2. g. 4. Note the features listed in the observation table. arrows. Complete diagram B to show how the contents of the red onion cells should appear if the cell were then rinsed with distilled water for several minutes. Place the “cell” in a breaker and add water until the “cell” is just covered 7. THEORY Onion is a multicellular plant. 1. Select one cell structure labeled in the diagram and write its number in the space below. Video explaining how to draw a biological diagram showing cell detail. (i)€€€€€ Name the type of cell division that produced cells X and Y. shl abstract reasoning test answers 2013. Comparing the 2 protists we looked at in lab - Which type of protista moved faster? 8. Label the “Initial State” part of the diagram found on page 4. Fill out the Venn Diagram below to show the 2 differences and 2 similarities between the onion and elodea cells. im/a9c6q onion epidermal cell labeled onion cell diagram 02. ( 4 marks) e The onion epidermal cells are not green in colour because they lack. Label the Cells Diagram with Callout Symbols As teaching materials, you always need to label terms and add descriptions to the cells diagrams. The kinetochore and polar microtubules are clearly visible and radiate out the ends of the cell leaving the chromosomes in the middle of the complex. a diagram of an epidermal cell of an onion under high power? Answer Save. iii) Give biological reasons for the following. The student observed the slide using a compound light microscope. red onion epidermis, forceps or fingernails, dropper, tap water, salt solution, paper towels, microscope, slide, and cover slip PRE-LAB: Before you can begin working with the red onion cells it is important that you understand how to properly work a microscope and the basic structure of a plant and animal cell. In the space below, sketch how the cell would look after the saltwater solution is added to it. Remove the slide from the stage and save it for (*Hint — focus on cells located near the edge of the coverslip where you added the stain. Explain F1. 5. Observe the cheek cells under both low and high power of your microscope. 9. Mitosis is the name for the kind of cell division that produces a greater number of cells = cell multiplication; after division, the daughter cells are about half the size of their parent, and they grow before division occurs again. 8. In a cell, a variety of structures perform speci c functions and interact to maintain homeostasis. diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. 3. Describe what happened to the plant cells and animal cells when placed in each solution. This process starts as a cleavage furrow between the cells, making it look like the figure 8. A s ing le la yer of onion cells (membra ne) ca n be ea s ily obta ined from the bu lb. Onion Cell drawing (high power) 2. and cytoplasm. Label the following diagram of the cell cycle with the correct names of each phase. Onion Cell Division Whitefish Cell Division. Use a ruler to draw a line to the object. Look carefully at these cells under 400X magnification to find cells in the various phases of mitosis (they are a litte harder to see than the onion cells). 1 -squamous epithelium. If you have trouble locating an onion cell, study the diagram of the onion cell very carefully then look in the microscope for a structure that looks very similar to this. Easily obtained, inexpensive, they offer samples with no difficult technique required. ) slide and on your drawing above, label the Regions of CELL DIVISION, CELL ELONGATION, and MATURATION. 1. 3: Nucleus: Nucleus located in the center. Draw and label your diagram. In fact, the term "cell" came from a pioneer of microscopic Viewing Plant Cells. Cytokinesis. Onion Cell. Diagram is labeled neatly without overlaps. The thin layer of skin found on the inside of an onion scale (one layer of onion) lifts off without effort and can be wet mounted on a slide with no need for extreme skill. to indicate relative proportions of salt and water inside the onion cells and outside the onion cells when they were placed in the . Drawings MUST be completed neatly using a pencil/colored pencil. 3) Answer the Discussion Questions that follow your cell drawings and observations. ) Cheek Cells 1. - Now place it on the slide. Inform them that among the 200 cells, the The cell wall is not a feature unique to plants; bacteria, fungi and some protists also have cell walls. onion cell labeled diagram